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Medical Specialties

ALLERGY: Allergist-immunologists are certified internists or pediatricians expert in the evaluation, physical and laboratory diagnosis, and management of disorders potentially involving the immune system. Selected examples of such conditions include asthma, anaphylaxis, rhinitis, eczema, urticaria, and adverse reactions to drugs, foods, and insect stings, as well as immune deficiency diseases.

ANESTHESIOLOGY: Anesthesiologists are physician-specialists who have the principal task of providing pain relief and maintenance, or restoration of a stable condition during an operation or an obstetric or diagnostic procedure. The anesthesiologist assesses the risk of the patient undergoing surgery and optimizes the patient's condition prior to, during, and after surgery. At South Shore Hospital, anesthesiologists also manage our 24-hour critical care units.

CARDIOLOGY: Cardiologists specialize in diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels, and manage complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and life-threatening heartbeat rhythms.

DERMATOLOGY: Dermatologists are physicians concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the skin and related tissues of the mouth, external genitalia, hair, and nails. In addition, the dermatologist has training and experience in the management of skin cancers, moles and other tumors of the skin, and in the use of various techniques for the correction of cosmetic defects of the skin.

EMERGENCY MEDICINE: Emergency medicine is the medical specialty that focuses on the immediate decision-making and action necessary to prevent death or any further disability.

ENDOCRINOLOGY: Endocrinologists concentrate on disorders of the internal (endocrine) glands, such as the thyroid and adrenal glands. Endocrinologists also diagnose, treat, and prevent disorders such as diabetes, metabolic and nutritional disorders, and pituitary diseases.

FAMILY PRACTICE: Family practice is the medical specialty that is concerned with the total health of the individual and the family. It is the specialty that integrates the biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences. 

GASTROENTEROLOGY: This subspecialty of the digestive organs involves the stomach, bowels, liver, gallbladder, and related organs. The gastroenterologist treats conditions such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer, and jaundice, and consults with surgeons when abdominal operations are required. 

GENERAL SURGERY: A general surgeon is a specialist prepared to manage a broad spectrum of surgical conditions affecting almost any area of the body. The surgeon establishes the diagnosis and provides preoperative, operative, and postoperative care to surgical patients.  

GENERAL VASCULAR SURGERY: A surgeon with special qualifications in the management of surgical disorders of the blood vessels, excluding those of the heart, lungs or brain.

HEMATOLOGY: Hematologists subspecialize in diseases of the blood, spleen, and lymph glands. They treat conditions such as anemia, clotting disorders, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, leukemia, and lymphoma, and may perform special types of transfusions and bone marrow biopsies.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE: These subspecialists deal with infectious diseases of all types and in all organs. Conditions requiring selective use of antibiotics call for this special skill.  

INTERNAL MEDICINE: Internists provide scientifically-based, ongoing care for the nonsurgical illnesses of adolescents and adults. The general internist provides comprehensive care for common and complex illnesses in the office as well as the hospital setting. The general internist also functions as a consultant to other specialists.

NEPHROLOGY: Nephrologists are concerned with disorders of the kidney, hypertension, fluid and mineral balance, dialysis of body wastes when the kidneys do not function, and consultation with surgeons about kidney transplantation.

NEONATOLOGY: A specialist in neonatal-perinatal medicine is the principal care provider for sick newborns.

NEUROLOGY: A neurologist is a physician concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including blood vessels, and all effector tissues, such as muscle. 

NEUROSURGERY: The neurological surgeon is a specialist involved in the operative and nonoperative management, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care and rehabilitation of patients with disorders of the nervous system. 

NURSE MIDWIFERY: Midwives are registered nurses with advanced, specialized training, who provide professional, personalized care during pregnancy, labor, and birth as well as routine gynecologic checkups. 

OBSTETRICS/GYNECOLOGY: Obstetrician-gynecologists are physicians who possess special knowledge, skills and professional capacity in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and associated disorders. A specialist in obstetrics and gynecology may subspecialize in gynecological oncology, maternal-fetal medicine, or reproductive endocrinology.

OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE: Occupational medicine is the medical specialty devoted to prevention and management of occupational injury, illness and disability, and promotion of health and productivity of workers, their families, and communities.  

ONCOLOGY: Medical oncologists specialize in cancer and tumor diagnosis and treatment. These subspecialists also administer chemotherapy for malignancy, as well as consult with surgeons and radiotherapists on cancer treatment. 

OPHTHALMOLOGY: An ophthalmologist is a physician who provides comprehensive eye and vision care. In addition to prescribing glasses and contact lenses, an ophthalmologist diagnoses, monitors, and treats eye and visual disorders through surgery or other treatment. 

ORAL and MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY: Surgery devoted to the treatment of oral disorders or jaw disorders.

ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY: Orthopedic surgeons care for patients whose musculoskeletal problems include deformities, injuries, and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knees, hips, shoulders, and elbows.

OTOLARYNGOLOGY: An otolaryngologist is a head and neck physician who provides medical and surgical care of patients with diseases and disorders that affect the ears, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, and related structures. The otolaryngologist has a command of the communication sciences, injuries of the ears, and head and neck oncology.

PATHOLOGY: Pathologists specialize in the practice of medicine dealing with the causes and nature of disease. They contribute to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biological, chemical, and physical sciences. 

PEDIATRICS: Pediatrics is the specialty of medical science concerned with the physical, emotional, and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Pediatric care encompasses a broad spectrum of health services ranging from preventive health care to the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases in children.  

PEDIATRIC SURGERY: A surgeon with special qualifications in the management of surgical conditions in premature and newborn infants, children, and adolescents.

PERINATOLOGY: Perinatologists are specialists in obstetrics and gynecology, who care for the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. These physicians focus on the obstetrical, medical, and surgical complications of pregnancy and the effect on both the mother and the fetus. 

PHYSIATRY: Physiatrists specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation. The physiatrist assists patients of all ages in reaching their potential, not only physically but also vocationally. The physiatrist evaluates the patient, prescribes the medical management, and orders the physical restoration program. 

PLASTIC and RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY: The branch of surgery that has to do with the repair of defects and the results of tissue loss, by direct union of parts, grafting, or other means.

PODIATRY: Podiatry is the specialty that includes the diagnosis and/or medical, surgical, mechanical, physical, and adjunctive treatment of diseases, injuries, and defects of the feet. 

PSYCHIATRY: These specialists deal with diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and/or behavioral disorders. They also enhance the adaptation of individuals who are coping with stress, crises, and other emotional problems. 

PSYCHOLOGY: The science dealing with mental processes both normal and abnormal, and their effects upon behavior. Psychologists are concerned with diagnosing and treating mental disorders.  

PULMONOLOGY: Pulmonology is the subspecialty concerned with diseases of the lungs and other chest tissues. The pulmonologist diagnoses and treats pneumonia, cancer, occupational diseases, bronchitis, emphysema and other complex disorders of the lungs. 

RADIOLOGY: Radiologists are skilled in the diagnostic and therapeutic use of X-rays and other forms of radiant energy. Radiology as a specialty has several branches including: therapeutic radiology, diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, and radiological physics. 

RHEUMATOLOGY: Rheumatologists are concerned with diseases of joints, muscles, bones, and tendons. The rheumatologist diagnoses and treats arthritis, back pain, muscle strains, common athletic injuries, and rare diseases of the connective tissues and arteries in many body systems, called "collagen" diseases. 

THORACIC SURGERY: Thoracic surgery encompasses the preoperative, operative, and critical care of patients with chest conditions, such as disorders of the lung and esophagus. 

UROLOGY: Urologists manage benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the adrenal gland and of the genitourinary systems.

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